Collioure thus belong in the ancient landscape of Catalonia which was a
flourishing province already in the Roman Empire. At the beginning of
the 400-century Catalonia was occupied by the Germanic Visigoths and
later by the moors (712). Emperor Charlemagne incorporated the area in
his kingdom, and called it Marca Hispanica (The Spanish Land). Marca
Hispanica were divided into 15 counties with Barcelona as the most
important. When Charles II died in 888, the county of Barcelona
became independent and took the name Principality of Catalonia.
In 1137 Catalonia was, along with Valencia and the Balearic Islands,
incorporate in the Kingdom of Aragon. Under Ferdinand II of Aragon
(1452-1516) Catalonia became a part of Spain.
Kingdom of Majorca (Mallorca) was
established by James I of Aragon ("The Conqueror") who reigned as king
of Aragon from 1213 to 1276.
The kingdom of Majorca existed from 1276 to 1349, and included the
Balearic Islands (Mallorca, Menorca, Formentera and Ibiza), the counties
of Rousillon and Cerdagne (today's northern Catalonia), and the
territories James had in Occitania (Montpellier, Carlades and
barony of Aumelas). Capital of this kingdom was, because of trade and
diplomacy, on the mainland in Perpignan.
After James' death in 1276, the kingdom was taken over by his second
son, who reigned under the name of James II of Majorca.
In 1344 James III was deposited by his cousin, king Peter IV of Aragon,
and was killed in 1349 in the attempt to reconquer the kingdom. The
title King of Mallorca existed after that in name only.
By the Pyrenees Treaty of 1659 between France and Spain the northern
Catalonia was geographically separated and given to France, and became
the province of Roussillon. Later the province was included in the
French department Pyrénées-Orientales with Perpignan (Perpinya) as
Collioure has always been a sought after place because of its opening to
the Mediterranean Sea, with two good harbours. easy defendable
against attacks. In 673 the city was occupied by the Visigoth king Wamba and
it is said that he gave the town the name "caucoliberis, which means "harbour to Elne", and
this shows that already then it was an important port city.
Archaeological findings show that the city was used by both
Greeks and Romans.
From the year 981 the
princes of Roussillon began
in Collioure, what
Le Château Royal in
the middle of the
the twelfth century Temple knights stayed here, and
in the period 1276 to 1344 the
castle was used
as a summer residence
for the kings of Mallorca.
In 1642 there
was war between
XIII besieged and conquered Collioure with an army of 10000 men, among
them were the king's Musketeers led by Turenne and dArtagnan!
Links to more information
about the kingdom of Aragon and the kings of Mallorca:
After the city became French, the strongholds of
the city, including Fort Saint-Elme, were
improved by the military engineer Marquis
Grand Priory of
Terra Nordica http://www.mocterranordica.org
Charitable Foundation http://www.mocfoundation.org
Aragonese College of Arms
History of Roussillon